viernes, 3 de enero de 2014

La vida oculta del inspector Wallander

En el último libro sobre los casos de Kurt Wallander, Huesos en el jardín, que Tusquets acaba de publicar, Henning Mankell, a modo de circunstancial despedida de su célebre inspector, agregó un posfacio que hará las delicias de los seguidores del detective sueco. En él no sólo explica su relación con el personaje, sino que cuenta cuáles fueron los motivos que lo impulsaron a crearlo, cómo fue modelando su personalidad y por qué, al cabo de doce libros, decidió decirle adiós.

Cuenta Mankell que en 1990, cuando volvió a Suecia después de una prolongada estadía en África, descubrió que en su país el racismo había aumentado de manera alarmante. Como quería escribir sobre ese problema y consideraba que se trataba sobre todo de un crimen, decidió que necesitaría dar vida a un investigador que fuera policía. Tomó de la guía telefónica el primer nombre que encontró (Kurt) y lo complementó con un apellido que sonara bien. Le dio a la criatura su propio año de nacimiento (1948) y así echó al mundo al inspector Kurt Wallander.

El racismo y sus consecuencias brutales fueron el tema de la primera novela de la serie, Asesinos sin rostro. Acaso sea un gesto de coquetería, acaso sea verdad (Andrea Camilleri dice lo mismo de su pintoresco comisario Salvo Montalbano), lo cierto es que Mankell afirma que no pensaba seguir escribiendo novelas protagonizadas por Wallander, pero el libro y el personaje tuvieron tanto éxito que el escritor se preguntó si no había creado "un instrumento con el que podía continuar interpretando música". En entregas sucesivas envolvió al detective en diversas intrigas internacionales, signadas por los problemas políticos y sociales de la época (la caída del comunismo, la persistencia del apartheid, el tráfico de órganos). Con el tiempo, Wallander se fue convirtiendo en un álter ego tanto de su autor como del hombre común que era su lector promedio. Así, Mankell lo hizo contraer diabetes; y cuando los fans lo paran por la calle o le escriben cartas para conocer la vida privada de Wallander, el escritor responde, por ejemplo, que no cree que el comisario sea un gran lector, excepto por las novelas y ensayos históricos, y por los libros de Sherlock Holmes. Y está seguro de que en la votación en que los ciudadanos de Suecia debían decidir si querían pertenecer o no a Unión Europea, el policía, siguiendo intereses corporativos, habrá votado a favor.

"Una de las diversas misiones del arte y de la literatura consiste en proporcionarnos compañía", reflexiona Mankell en el posfacio de Huesos en el jardín. ¿Por qué entonces decidió despedirse (aunque no descarta un eventual reencuentro) del personaje que lo ha acompañado, a él y tantos lectores en el mundo, a lo largo de tantos años? Simple: porque Wallander había crecido de tal manera que amenazaba con volverse más importante que el relato que lo contenía. Y eso, cree Mankell, habría significado el final de su literatura..

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