sábado, 28 de diciembre de 2013

LOS ESCRITORES Y SUS ENFERMEDADES

Cuando el genio literario emerge del sufrimiento


¿Dónde anida el genio literario? ¿Qué trama singular les da a algunos la posibilidad de descubrir mundos ocultos detrás del mero pragmatismo de la palabra?
A fines del siglo XIX, el controvertido médico y antropólogo italiano Cesare Lombroso, padre de la criminología, encontró una respuesta tentativa a esta pregunta. En Genio e follia (Genio y locura, Brigola, Milán, 1872 y 1882), planteó que el don artístico es una forma de desequilibrio mental. Para sustentar su hipótesis, se dedicó a coleccionar lo que llamó "arte psiquiátrico" (escritos, dibujos y pinturas realizados por pacientes encerrados en hospitales mentales) y vinculó la creatividad con la esquizofrenia, por el alto índice de pacientes que plasmaban su tormentosa existencia en una obra artística.
El insidioso vínculo que parece tenderse entre las mentes creativas y la enfermedad es un tópico que reaparece insistentemente cuando se trata de explicar esa cualidad inasible que poseen ciertas personas de ir más allá de la realidad aparente y ver fractales donde la mayoría de los demás apenas percibimos ángulos rectos. "El arte transforma en novedoso lo cotidiano, en original lo repetitivo y ordinario -dice el doctor Facundo Manes, presidente de la Fundación Ineco y director del Instituto de Neurociencias de la Fundación Favaloro-. La obra de arte permite interpretar con nuevas claves lo conocido y construir nuevos sentidos colectivos. Y es el genio artístico el que tiene la capacidad de generar aquello extraordinario que la sociedad percibe y admira como maravilloso."
Aunque las neurociencias desmienten que sea imprescindible sufrir demencia o esquizofrenia para ser un genio creativo, explica Manes, mucho de lo que se sabe sobre creatividad y cerebro se conoce por personas que desarrollaron talentos artísticos luego de expresar una disfunción cerebral. "Kandinsky descubrió su problema neurológico, denominado sinestesia, durante un concierto de Wagner, en el que percibió que veía los colores de la música -cuenta-. Diversos estudios sugieren una asociación entre la enfermedad bipolar y la creatividad. Personas con afectación progresiva del lóbulo frontal pueden desarrollar talento creativo luego del comienzo de la enfermedad, más allá de no haber tenido una historia personal de producción artística previa. Una hipótesis es que luego del daño frontal, los sistemas de inhibición se liberan. Algunos proponen que la innovación surge cuando áreas del cerebro que generalmente no están conectadas logran comunicarse y coactivarse."
Desde el célebre Bobby Fisher hasta el malogrado pianista australiano David Helfgott (el de la película Claroscuro), Beethoven o el matemático ruso Grigori Perelman (que rehusó recibir la medalla Fields y un premio de un millón de dólares para vivir recluido en un modesto departamento junto a su madre), la historia de las grandes mentes sugiere que no se alcanzan las altas cumbres del pensamiento sin una dosis de sufrimiento y desequilibrio.
La literatura es un capítulo particularmente elocuente de cómo se entretejen las penurias y la creación. En Orwell's Cough (La tos de Orwell, Oneworld Publications, 2012), el médico infectólogo e investigador de la Universidad de Harvard, John Ross, argumenta que, en individuos dotados, períodos juveniles de infelicidad podrían impulsar logros literarios de dos maneras: aumentando el riesgo de desórdenes del ánimo, que se vinculan con la creatividad, y desarrollando la fantasía y la imaginación. "El genio literario emerge más frecuentemente del fracaso y la pena que del confort y la complacencia", dice Ross.
A la manera de un doctor House histórico, en su obra el especialista pone la lupa sobre una paleta de estrellas del panteón literario occidental, y sigue las huellas que dejaron en sus escritos y en sus biografías para reconstruir las dolencias que no sólo no detuvieron su trabajo creativo, sino que parecen haber contribuido a alimentarlo. Como afirma Faulkner en una de las entrevistas de The Paris Review reunidas en El oficio de escritor (Ediciones Era, 1968):
Un artista es una criatura impulsada por demonios. No sabe por qué ellos lo escogen y suele estar demasiado ocupado para preguntárselo. Es completamente amoral en el sentido de que será capaz de robar, tomar prestado, mendigar o despojar a cualquiera y a todo el mundo con tal de realizar la obra.

LA LETRA DE SHAKESPEARE

Aunque a veces se cree que para llegar a ser un gran escritor se necesita una sólida educación formal y que la tranquilidad económica ampara la creación artística, muchos ejemplos indican lo contrario. Este escenario parece haberse cumplido en el caso de William Shakespeare, quienquiera que haya sido, que habría escrito gran parte de su producción abrumado por la enfermedad.
El único hecho médico que se conoce acerca del bardo inglés es que su letra se hizo temblorosa hacia el final de su vida y a partir de allí Ross hilvana sus hipótesis. La letra del poeta y dramaturgo empeoró gradualmente desde los 36 años, cuando escribió Hamlet, hasta su muerte, a los 52. Aparentemente, eso podría atribuirse al envenenamiento con mercurio, un indicador de que habría sufrido sífilis, enfermedad venérea que se había transformado en una verdadera plaga a fines del siglo XVI.
Se cree que la sífilis llegó a Europa con la tripulación de Colón. Estudios recientes respaldan esta tradición, ya que no se encontraron trazas de sífilis en varios miles de esqueletos europeos del siglo XV, pero hasta el catorce por ciento de los esqueletos de sitios precolombinos de la hoy República Dominicana tenían signos de daño óseo sifilítico.
"Las referencias a la sífilis en Shakespeare son más abundantes, intrusivas y clínicamente exactas que en sus contemporáneos", dice Ross. El tratamiento de rutina consistía, precisamente, en vapores de mercurio, que provocan temblor, gingivitis y una constelación de cambios de la personalidad. Casi un siglo más tarde, Newton tuvo un prolongado episodio de paranoia, insomnio y aislamiento social entre cuyas causas se menciona también un posible envenenamiento por mercurio (originado en sus estudios de la alquimia). Análisis de sus cabellos detectaron un contenido de 197 partes por millón, comparado con valores modernos de menos de 1,4 ppm.

LA CEGUERA DE BORGES Y DE MILTON

Perder la visión es una de las circunstancias más dolorosas que pueden sobrevenirle a cualquier persona, pero para un escritor es un obstáculo monumental. Sin embargo, después de la figura fundacional de Homero, dos obras insoslayables se deben a escritores ciegos. Uno de ellos es Borges, acosado toda su vida por graves problemas de visión, que culminaron en la ceguera total cuando tenía 55 años.
"La ceguera de Borges es hereditaria por línea paterna -cuenta su mujer, María Kodama, creadora y directora de la Fundación Internacional que lleva el nombre del escritor-. Su padre murió ciego y su abuela inglesa también. Él fue extremadamente miope desde muy chico y sabía que iba a quedar ciego. Entonces ejercitó su memoria para poder recordar en el futuro lo que pensaba que algún día sería incapaz de leer."
Según recuerda Kodama, en su juventud Borges tuvo varios desprendimientos de retina y también puede haber padecido glaucoma (inapropiado drenaje del humor acuoso, lo que aumenta la presión intraocular y daña el nervio óptico). "Es una observación mía -aclara-, pero quizás sus problemas estuvieran relacionados además con la diabetes, que sufrió de joven."
Cuando lo nombraron director de la Biblioteca Nacional, Borges escribió "El poema de los dones":
Nadie rebaje a lágrima o reproche
esta declaración de la maestría
de Dios, que con magnífica ironía
me dio a la vez los libros y la noche.
De esta ciudad de libros hizo dueños
a unos ojos sin luz, que sólo pueden
leer en las bibliotecas de los sueños.
Según cuenta Kodama, la ceguera de Borges no era total, sino que él estaba en una penumbra, una luz azulada. Ése fue el último color que perdió.
Para seguir escribiendo, les dictó a su madre, a amigos y hasta a periodistas que iban a entrevistarlo. Tenía una memoria prodigiosa: "Me acuerdo de una de las primeras veces que me dijo que buscara una nota en un libro -cuenta Kodama-. Lo hojeo y, de pronto, veo algo que decía 'contradicción, ver en la página tal'. Entonces me dice que mire en la portadilla. ¡Era una anotación de cuando tenía 16 años!" Y sigue: "Nunca se quejó, nunca dijo '¿por qué a mí?' . Eso demuestra una entereza de carácter. Hay una foto que tengo en la sala de conferencias en la que Borges está con los ojos cerrados muy apretados. Era la imagen de cuando comenzaba la creación, la ceguera sola no le bastaba. Para mí esa foto tiene un significado muy fuerte. Era el momento de máxima concentración".
John Milton también quedó ciego en la mitad de su vida, pero se sobrepuso y escribió nada menos que El paraíso perdido. Ross conjetura en su libro:
Al parecer, Milton exhibía dificultades interpersonales que sugieren un grado de 'autismo de alto rendimiento' o síndrome de Asperger. La gente con ese trastorno tiene problemas en aspectos de la interacción social que son intuitivos para la mayoría de las personas. Pueden tener grandes capacidades intelectuales, pero el comportamiento común les es misterioso.
Milton comenzó a perder su visión del ojo izquierdo en 1644, a los 36 años, y cinco años más tarde perdería la del ojo derecho. Lo trataron haciéndole heridas cerca de los ojos que se mantuvieron abiertas para que "escaparan los malos humores". En 1652 se volvió totalmente ciego. Aunque no se sabe con precisión, se especula que se debió a enfermedades de la córnea, cataratas (opacificación del cristalino), glaucoma o desprendimiento de la retina causado por una miopía grave.
Pero además de la ceguera, Milton desarrolló fuertes cefaleas y dolorosos trastornos digestivos. También sufrió de artritis gotosa. Ambos cuadros sugieren envenenamiento con plomo, que afecta los riñones, produce aumento de ácido úrico y daña la red nerviosa intestinal. También causa anemia.
Por sus actividades políticas, los libros de Milton fueron quemados y él, encerrado en la Torre de Londres. Abandonado por sus hijas debido a los malos tratos que les dispensaba, para completar El Paraíso perdido debía dictarle entre 10 y 30 líneas diarias a alguno de sus muchos admiradores. Murió a los 65 años, probablemente de una arritmia cardíaca.
Desde siempre, se cree que locura y creación tienen algo en común. Uno de los casos más sobrecogedores que ilustran la connivencia de literatura y psicosis es el del poeta Jacobo Fijman. Nacido en 1898, sus crisis empezaron en 1921. Se volvió místico y se convirtió al catolicismo. En 1942 lo internaron definitivamente por psicosis delirante hasta su muerte. En su notable Fijman, un poeta entre dos vidas, (Ediciones de la Flor, 1992), Juan Jacobo Bajarlía describe el viaje del escritor al fin de la noche:
La vida de Fijman fue una dispersión [...] donde la realidad no estaba en la cosa sino en la palabra. En ella residía su magnitud y su delirio [...]. Sólo fue coherente en su poesía, allí donde las tinieblas y la realidad dejan de combatirse.
Fijman murió en lo que es hoy el Hospital Borda, el 1° de diciembre de 1970. En la morgue, escribe Bajarlía, "tenía un cartel sujeto con un piolín a uno de los dedos del pie en el que se leía: 'Jacobo Fijman, 72 años, muerto de edema pulmonar'".
Jonathan Swift, el creador de Los viajes de Gulliver, novela cuyo protagonista enloquece por contemplar tan de cerca los defectos de la naturaleza humana, sufrió de depresión desde la adolescencia y en 1689 padeció el primer ataque de una extraña enfermedad que lo perseguiría el resto de su vida. Le causaba vértigo, tinnitus (percepción de sonidos que no provienen de ninguna causa externa) y pérdida de la audición. Probablemente, sufrió la enfermedad de Menière, un trastorno progresivo que daña el oído interno, y que le causó problemas de concentración y de memoria.
Además, también padecía trastorno obsesivo compulsivo. Era higiénico hasta un grado extraordinario para el siglo XVIII, "cuando se lavaba la ropa pero raramente el cuerpo -cuenta Ross-. Era puntual y de hábitos monótonos, hacía listas y contaba sus pasos cuando caminaba. Se ejercitaba obsesivamente y caminaba entre seis y dieciséis kilómetros por día. Vivía pendiente del reloj. En sus cenas, nadie podía hablar más de un minuto por vez, incluido él".
Los viajes de Gulliver se publicó en 1726 y tuvo un éxito inmediato. Swift pasó a ser famoso pero miserable. Deseaba la muerte. Sus biógrafos mencionan que padecía alucinaciones. Horrorizado por la senilidad, en una carta de 1735 a su amigo Alexander Pope le confiesa que su "memoria lo está abandonando rápidamente". Un año más tarde todas sus facultades habían decaído y sus pasiones estaban fueran de control, lo que lo convertía en "un tormento para sí mismo y para todos los que lo rodeaban".
Se hizo más grosero y maltrataba a las mujeres, signos característicos de demencia frontal o enfermedad de Pick. Pero a pesar de sus penurias físicas y mentales, su pico creativo fue tardío: gran parte de su obra se conoció después de que cumplió 50 años, incluyendo sus poemas escatológicos, lo que permite preguntarse si su originalidad fue un subproducto de la demencia.

LA TOS DE LAS HERMANAS BRONTË

Si hay una patología asociada con la literatura es la tuberculosis. "El mito de la tuberculosis ofrecía algo más que una explicación de la creatividad -escribe Susan Sontag en La enfermedad y sus metáforas (Random House Mondadori, 2012)-. Daba un modelo importante de la vida bohemia, vivida con o sin la vocación artística."
Un artículo de la edición de marzo de 1964 de la revista para médicos MD, dedicado a Alejandro Dumas padre, confirma que la tisis era la enfermedad de moda. Tanto que éste, afirma el autor de la nota,
se vio obligado a contagiar a una de sus heroínas con el bacilo de Koch . Cuando la novela Amaury se publicaba por entregas, Dumas tuvo noticias de que la hija de un noble y el yerno de éste, ambos tuberculosos, esperaban ansiosos la publicación de los diferentes capítulos como si quisieran averiguar cuál sería su propio destino. Interrumpió la publicación de la obra y le envió a la romántica pareja un desenlace falso, pero feliz; sólo después de muertos los dos permitió que siguiera la serie.
También se cuenta que, cuando ambos la padecían, Keats consolaba a Shelley diciéndole que era "una enfermedad particularmente amiga de la gente que escribe versos". La sufrieron Bécquer, Kafka y Chejov, entre muchos otros. Pero las hermanas Brontë representan, sin duda, un caso especial. Charlotte, que escribió Jane Eyre; su hemana menor, Emily, autora de Cumbres borrascosas; así como sus dos hermanas mayores, María y Elizabeth, contrajeron la tuberculosis al igual que otras 36 alumnas de una clase de 53 chicas que estudiaban en la Clergy Daughter's School, donde dormían hacinadas y se levantaban a las cinco de la madrugada para tomar un desayuno lamentable y lavarse con agua congelada. María y Elizabeth murieron a los once y diez años, respectivamente. Charlotte y Emily seguirían ese camino varios años después.
Emily Brontë era una personalidad extraña. Sus biógrafos dicen que nunca mostró interés por un humano; todo su amor estuvo reservado a los animales y hay quienes atribuyen sus peculiaridades al síndrome de Asperger (son adictos al trabajo, tienen excelente memoria y retención de los detalles, frecuentemente poseen grandes habilidades verbales y pueden encontrar un aspecto terapéutico en la creación artística). Hacia fines de 1848, y después de meses de toses, debilidad y falta de aire, fue languideciendo cada vez más y murió en diciembre de 1848.
Charlotte, sumida en la depresión, se refugió en la escritura. Casada a los 38 años, a los seis meses se embarazó, desarrolló hiperemesis gravídica (náuseas y vómitos continuos, un trastorno que afecta al uno por ciento de las embarazadas) y fiebre, un cóctel que inclinó la balanza a favor de la malnutrición, la tuberculosis y, finalmente, la muerte.

LA BIPOLARIDAD DE HERMAN MELVILLE

Uno de los ocho hijos de un importador de bienes de lujo franceses, Herman Melville, parece haber heredado la vulnerabilidad al desorden bipolar de su padre que, tras huir de Manhattan por un quebranto comercial, cayó en el delirio. Según afirma Ross, su desorden habría impulsado la carrera literaria del creador de Moby Dick, pero también aceleró su caída.
A los doce años, Herman debió emplearse en un banco para sostener a su familia. Sin educación formal, pero voraz lector, se embarcó por primera vez cuando tenía 19 años, en enero de 1841. Después de viajar a ese Edén de los marinos que era la Polinesia, se transformó en escritor. Produjo toda su obra acosado por la bipolaridad, la depresión, el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo y los problemas con el alcohol. Existen indicios de que habría maltratado a su mujer y a sus hijos. En sus escritos abundan las referencias a la locura y a la depresión.
Pero dado que también sufrió ataques de dolor ocular y fotofobia, reumatismo y otros males, en su libro Ross sugiere que habría padecido una enfermedad autoimmune, espondilitis anquilosante, que conduce a la inflamación y endurecimiento de articulaciones vertebrales, sacroilíacas y de los ojos. Además, tuvo artritis en ambas manos, gota, y erisipela, una infección de la piel causada por estreptococos, que sin embargo no le impidió escribir la nouvelle Billy Budd. Murió a los 72, en 1891, aparentemente por fallas de una válvula cardíaca.

CERVANTES Y JACK LONDON

Para comprender cómo las incomodidades y la enfermedad pueden alumbrar obras maestras basta con pensar en el Quijote. Es sabido que Cervantes lo escribió en sus últimos años y en medio de todo tipo de sufrimientos. Aquejado de una sed constante, probablemente a causa de una diabetes avanzada, en esos días su organismo ya se encontraba en un estado calamitoso. Según se lee en el prólogo de las Novelas ejemplares, el escritor confiesa:
Este que veis aquí, de rostro aguileño, de cabello castaño, frente lisa y desembarazada, de alegres ojos y nariz corva, [...] los dientes ni menudos ni crecidos, porque no tiene sino seis y ésos mal acondicionados y peor puestos [...] es el rostro del autor de la Galatea y de Don Quijote [...]. Perdió en la batalla naval de Lepanto la mano izquierda de un arcabuzazo; herida que, aunque parece fea, él la tiene por hermosa.
Un caso no tan conocido es el de Jack London. A los 21, cuando se convirtió en escritor, ya había sido marinero, cazador de focas, boxeador y buscador de oro, entre otras actividades. La llamada de la selva lo catapultó a la fama y la riqueza. Fue el primer escritor en ganar un millón de dólares (aunque su madre lo había sacado de la escuela a los trece años para mandarlo a trabajar 14 horas por día a 10 centavos la hora.).
Durante sus viajes sufrió escorbuto y gonorrea. En las islas Solomon, una enfermedad provocada por la misma bacteria que la sífilis, pero transmitida por la picadura de insectos le causó sufrimientos horrorosos. También tuvo impresionantes inflamaciones en sus manos y uñas, tal vez a causa del envenenamiento por mercurio.
Luego, cuando viajó a México para informar sobre la revolución mexicana, cayó enfermo de disentería. Quiso combatirla con estricnina, belladona, heroína, opio y morfina. Pero a pesar de todo, produjo 49 libros en 19 años. Escribía 15 horas por día y raramente dormía más de cinco horas por noche. A los 40, tenía cálculos renales y la dentadura arruinada. El 22 de noviembre de 1916 su valet lo encontró azul. En el suelo, había una jeringa y dos viales de morfina.

LOS OJOS DE JOYCE

James fue uno de los diez hijos de Stanislaus Joyce. Iba a ser médico pero un desastre comercial de su padre le impidió graduarse. Sus trastornos de salud empezarían con los problemas venéreos, pero no terminarían allí.
Aunque fue un escritor disciplinado, que subordinaba todo a su trabajo (completó Dublinenses en 1907 y Retrato de un artista adolescente en 1914), al finalizar su primera obra tuvo un ataque de poliartritis e iritis, o inflamación del iris. Se sospecha que en realidad la enfermedad de Joyce fue una artritis reactiva, enfermedad autoinmune desencadenada por una infección genital o por diarrea ocasionada por ciertas bacterias. Terminaría perdiendo casi totalmente la visión debido a la inflamación, las operaciones y las complicaciones.
En 1917, mientras escribía Ulises, tuvo varios ataques de glaucoma y uno particularmente grave que obligó a su oftalmólogo a removerle parte del iris para aliviar la presión. En 1920, ya instalado en París, pasó cinco semanas en un cuarto oscuro y recibiendo gotas de cocaína como anestésico, lo que puede haber empeorado el cuadro y agravado su glaucoma. Entre septiembre de 1922 y junio de 1926 tuvo nueve operaciones oculares. Al cabo de las cirugías, casi no veía con el ojo izquierdo.
Durante la última década de su vida, la esquizofrenia de su hija, Lucía, lo precipitó en la depresión mientras padecía dolorosas úlceras pépticas y una peritonitis que resultó fatal.
Nacido como Eric Blair en la India, en 1903, George Orwell tuvo tos crónica desde chico y contrajo el dengue en Birmania. Sufrió la pobreza y trabajó como lavaplatos en París. Tenía episodios de tos todos los inviernos, sin embargo, los tests para detectar tuberculosis siempre arrojaban resultados negativos.
Mientras participaba en la guerra civil española, una bala de Mauser le atravesó el cuello. pero no lo mató. Luego de recuperarse, escribió Homenaje a Cataluña en cuatro meses, no obstante, en marzo de 1938 empezó a toser grandes cantidades de sangre. Estaba muy delgado y con sus pulmones en un estado lamentable. Lo internaron y lo sometieron a una batería de tests. Los análisis volvieron a arrojar resultados negativos. El diagnóstico fue bronquiectasia crónica del pulmón izquierdo, una complicación de neumonía o bronquitis mal curadas en la niñez, en una época en que no existían los antibióticos.
En un período de buena salud escribió Rebelión en la granja. Este libro y el posterior, 1984, le trajeron la fama, pero ya no podría disfrutarla. Después de la muerte de su mujer en una cirugía por tumores uterinos, y de quedar a cargo de un hijo recientemente adoptado, pasó los últimos 18 meses de su vida en la isla escocesa de Jura, sin electricidad ni agua caliente. Murió de tuberculosis en 1950, poco después de que 1984 se transformó en un éxito editorial.

LA EPILEPSIA DE DOSTOIEVSKI

Hubo muchos escritores que padecieron epilepsia -como Flaubert, Poe, Dickens y Agatha Christie- pero sin duda Dostoievski es el más famoso de todos. Hijo de un cirujano militar retirado, desde 1860 registró meticulosamente sus ataques en una libreta. Documentó 102 convulsiones "de todos tipos" en 20 años, con largas épocas en las que sufría un episodio cada tres semanas.
Son numerosos los estudios neurológicos que intentan develar de qué tipo era la epilepsia que aquejaba al escritor. En uno de ellos, publicado en la revista Seizure, se destaca que la enfermedad influyó en su escritura y su estilo. Christian Baumann, Vladimir Novikov, Marianne Regard y Adrian Siege explican:
Su lenguaje es nervioso, tenso e impulsivo. Sus frases son frecuentemente largas y complicadas, contienen una colorida aglomeración de palabras y expresiones, términos oficiales, periodísticos y científicos, palabras extranjeras, nombres y citas. [.] Muchos eventos de las novelas de Dostoievski comienzan súbitamente, sin preparación o explicación -como las convulsiones-. [.] Escribía de manera minuciosa, usando cada espacio vacío de la página. Mostró una tendencia hacia la escritura compulsiva y sus escritos a menudo estaban vinculados con problemas morales, éticos o religiosos, lo que podría reflejar cambios de comportamiento dscriptos en la epilepsia temporal.
No es difícil entender por qué el vínculo entre enfermedad y creación apasiona a los científicos. "Observar la incidencia de enfermedades en los procesos creativos nos permite modificar nuestros pareceres sobre las enfermedades, pero también sobre los procesos creativos -afirma Manes-. El interés en una tarea artística lleva a un alto estado de motivación que produce una atención sostenida, necesaria para mejorar el rendimiento en otros dominios cognitivos. La creatividad puede ser entrenada, pero también hay una carga genética que la predispone. En el estudio de la producción artística de personas con enfermedades mentales hay mucho para aprender sobre el cerebro, sobre las enfermedades en sí mismas y, por qué no, sobre la historia del arte y la cultura. Pero también, y de manera más inquietante, está la posibilidad de interpelarnos sobre la idea de lo normal, de lo establecido, de los prejuicios negativos que muchas veces surgen sobre aquello que se manifiesta como diferente en la sociedad. De esa diferencia, muchas veces, ha surgido la maravilla."
Las fórmulas creativas están siempre veladas por el misterio. El mausoleo de la posteridad lima muchas de las posibles interpretaciones, como en el caso del novelista y dramaturgo japonés Yukio Mishima, nacido en una familia de fortuna y con aspiraciones aristocráticas, que sufrió tuberculosis en su juventud para luego sumirse en un extraño culto del cuerpo, y delirios que lo llevaron a formar una milicia privada y a ejecutar un tenebroso suicidio ritual. O, entre los más cercanos, Alejandra Pizarnik, poeta de culto entre las nuevas generaciones de escritores, cuya turbulenta y desesperada voz poética la llevó a borrar los límites entre la literatura y la realidad, y terminar sucidándose a los 36 años con 50 pastillas de un barbitúrico, durante una salida de fin de semana del hospital psiquiátrico en el que estaba internada. O el de Julio Cortázar, al que un padre ausente y una niñez enfermiza convirtieron en lector y escritor precoz y, ya en París, a ser una estrella fulgurante del boom latinoamericano de los años sesenta.
Por supuesto, este breve catálogo no pretende agotar los innumerables recorridos que sigue la literatura. Como en todos los órdenes de la vida, hay escritores ricos y pobres, estudiosos e intuitivos, enfermizos y longevos. Faulkner lo explica sin vueltas:
El artista es responsable sólo ante su obra. [...] Tiene un sueño, y ese sueño lo angustia tanto que debe liberarse de él. Hasta entonces no tiene paz. Lo echa todo por la borda: el honor, el orgullo, la decencia, la seguridad, la felicidad, todo, con tal de escribir el libro.
Y más adelante agrega: "Nada puede destruir al buen escritor. Lo único que puede alterar al buen escritor es la muerte"..


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