miércoles, 30 de agosto de 2006

El nuevo libro de Isabel Allende

Entrevista de Clarín con la autora chilena, que presentó la semana pasada su novela Inés del alma mía, en el Alvear Palace de Buenos Aires.

¿Tengo cara de cansada?", preguntará hacia la mitad de la entrevista Isabel Allende y se palmeará la mejilla, como si con dos toquecitos pudiera borrar de ella los días de trabajo, las horas de vuelo, la entrevista con la presidenta chilena, Michelle Bachelet, la presentación en Santiago de Chile de su última novela, Inés del alma mía.

- Sí, tiene cara de cansada.

- Sin embargo, como siempre, atenderá hasta la última pregunta con amabilidad, opinará sobre el lugar donde hacer las fotos ?"¿no va a quedar demasiado kitsch?"? y correrá a chequear, en el visor de la cámara, la imagen con la que aparece.

Autora de éxitos como La casa de los espíritus, la nueva novela de la escritora chilena no salió casi de su imaginación sino de los libros de Historia: habla de Inés Suárez, una española que llegó sola a América y aquí conoció a Pedro de Valdivia, con quien estuvo en pareja durante diez años. Mientras ocurría, justamente, la conquista de Chile. De la que ella participó curando, alimentando y criando, pero también cortando cabezas - li-te-ral-men-te - cuando lo creyó necesario.

- ¿En qué se parece usted a Inés?

- Uno elige personajes con los que tiene afinidad. Tal vez no me parezco a Inés pero la entiendo. Me gusta una mujer que se mueve por amor.

- ¿En eso se parece?

- ¡Síííí! Yo soy capaz de dejar todo tirado porque me enamoro. Todo. Hasta los hijos.

- En la novela, Inés hace hincapié en que la guerra entre los mapuche y los blancos es para siempre. ¿Cómo lo ve ahora?

- La guerra duró 300 años; los mapuche nunca se sometieron, han vivido marginados de la sociedad chilena y ahora están en pie de guerra de nuevo. Han sido un pueblo invencible; han preferido la muerte a ser sometidos.

- ¿No ha terminado esa guerra?

- En este momento hay muchos problemas con los mapuche en Chile porque el gobierno está tratando de hacer cosas en sus tierras y ellos no quieren. Y no se integraron nunca.

- ¿La conquista no terminó?

- No terminó.

- ¿Escribir esta novela la hizo ver la conquista desde otro lado?

- Sí, siempre la había visto desde el punto de vista del indígena. Y de pronto tuve que ponerme en la piel de los conquistadores. Que eran unos bribones. Pero de un coraje... Ciento diez tipos que cruzan el desierto más árido del mundo y pelean contra diez mil indígenas y yo no sé cómo sobreviven... Me dio una cierta admiración esa epopeya. Claro, desde el punto de vista del indígena es horroroso. Fue una masacre.

- ¿Cuál es el atractivo de un personaje histórico para una novela?

- Desde la escritura, un personaje histórico viene con su escenografía. Ya tienes un tiempo y un espacio. No hay que inventarlo, está ahí, hay un material riquísimo. Es más fácil.

- Es pereza...

Se ríe Isabel Allende. No, dice que no es pereza. Pero que entrar en la Historia "es como meterse en una fábrica de chocolate, uno no sabe qué elegir".

En estos días, Allende estuvo conversando con Bachelet, a quien llamará "Michelle".

- ¿De qué hablaron?

- De lo que significa gobernar como mujer y cómo una mujer tiene que hacer el doble de esfuerzo para conseguir la mitad de reconocimiento que un hombre.

- ¿Eso le dijo ella?

- No, eso lo concluimos. Lo que dijo ella es lo difícil que es que te respeten. Michelle no es una persona autoritaria, no es una gritona, tiene una cosa muy suave, muy sonriente. En un país tan machista como Chile, tiene que probar que esto no es debilidad.

- ¿Qué fue de los sueños socialistas de la época de la Unidad Popular?

- No se han perdido, creo que el hecho de que haya fracasado el proyecto de la Unión Soviética y el comunismo no significa el triunfo del capitalismo. El capitalismo está probando cada vez más que no funciona, que hay que buscar soluciones mixtas, alternativas, una cosa diferente.

- Pero...

- Yo tengo esperanzas, yo creo que estamos tocando fondo, con Bush tocamos fondo. Todo lo que está pasando en Estados Unidos y en Irak y en Guantánamo, es una cosa horrorosa. Para justificar la tortura están cambiando el lenguaje. Ahora buscan un eufemismo para que no se llame "tortura" sino de otra manera, que no sean "prisioneros de guerra" sino otra cosa, como no pueden torturar en ciertas partes inventan prisiones secretas... Es muy grave.

- ¿Cómo se siente cuando va a Chile?

- Muy bien, porque la gente me trata con un cariño que no te puedo decir. Pero lo veo chico a Chile. Como vengo del mundo, de Europa, de Estados Unidos, de Australia, veo que Chile sigue teniendo esa condición como de isla, a pesar de que hay mucho progreso, se ve chico. Todo es pequeño, el movimiento cultural, la gente parece que se conociera, entonces hay como un sistema de rumor... Luego el clasismo chileno. Es brutal. Es como el racismo norteamericano. Y muy fuerte el peso de la Iglesia Católica. Mira: la portada de mi libro tiene una mujer con los senos desnudos. En un mall lo sacaron. No es una censura oficial; a la gente que va al mall no le gusta que sus niños vean una señora con la pechuga fuera, entonces los que administran el mall, por precaución, no lo ponen.

- En Estados Unidos directamente imprimieron otra tapa...

- Allí cada vez más hay esas inmensas cadenas de librerías, que imponen criterios. Ellos deciden qué se va a poner en la vidriera, qué libros van a vender. Y los editores los consultan.

- ¿Cuál es el próximo libro?

- Una memoria de los últimos diez años de mi familia. Yo empiezo mis libros los 8 de enero. Este año, a las 7 de la mañana llamó Carmen Ballcells, mi representante. Me dijo: "Léeme la primera línea". "Pero Carmen, son las 7 de la mañana". "Si no tienes la primera línea, escribe unas memorias", me dijo.

- ¿Y no se va a enojar la familia?

- Estoy esperando a que esté traducida para que la lean todos, hasta los que no leen castellano.

- ¿Es una autobiografía?

- No, no mi vida no es tan interesante. Yo lo que hago es trabajar como un burro para mantener a toda esa tribu.

Patricia Kolesnicov
Clarín

http://www.lsf.com.ar/libros/7/950072761.html

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